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A self-supporting, horizontal extension from a building, in which no external bracing is used, such as a step, balcony or canopy.

Ceiling Joists

The horizontal member of the roof which ties the walls of a structure together, to support the ceiling of a room.

Chords (Bottom Chord or Top Chord)

An inclined or horizontal member of a truss, connected by a web composed of compression and tension members.

Cladding (or Building Skin)

The material used for the exterior building covering.


A vertical structural element for used for upright support that transmits the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below.

Note: In pole barns, posts (columns) are pressure treated or laminated wood. In timber-frame barns, rough cut and untreated wood is usually used.

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